How to setup a Redis cluster with Sentinel (comes with Redis) and HAProxy on Ubuntu 18.04

Redis provides high availability via Redis Sentinel distributed system. Sentinel helps to monitor Redis instances, detect failures and will do roles switches automatically thus enabling a Redis deployment to resist any kind of failures.

  • Redis – A fast key/value storage engine
  • Sentinel – Keeps track of Master/Slave machines and promotes and demotes them when VMs go down or go offline
  • HAProxy – A proxy server that can keep track of which services that are available and ready to receive requests

 

Prerequisites

  • For VMs with Ubuntu 18.04 installed
  • Basic knowledge in how to install packages in Ubuntu via APT
  • Basic knowledge of how to edit configuration files
  • Basic knowledge of how firewalls work

NOTE: Remember that when Sentinel is in charge of deciding which server is Master and Slave. The above stated Master / Slave constellation will change. The table above is a just a snapshot of our initial setup.

1. Install redis-server

sudo apt update

sudo apt install redis-server redis-sentinel

Run command below to check that every is working

[email protected]:~# redis-cli ping

PONG

2. Install and enable UFW on the machines that will host Redis

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt install ufw

sudo ufw enable

sudo ufw allow 22

sudo ufw allow in on eth1 to any port 6379

sudo ufw allow in on eth1 to any port 26379

In the example above we have allowed traffic on port 22 from everywhere on the internet and we only allow traffic from our private network via our eth1 interface (the interface that has access to our private network) to access our Redis and Sentinel services.

NOTE: Remember to harden Your SSH config in order increase security on machines that are open to traffic from the internet. I would recommend using a bastionhost machine.

The status of UFW should look something like

[email protected]:~# ufw status

Status: active

 

To                         Action      From

—                         ——      —-

22                         ALLOW       Anywhere

6379 on eth1               ALLOW       Anywhere

26379 on eth1              ALLOW       Anywhere

22 (v6)                    ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)

6379 (v6) on eth1          ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)

26379 (v6) on eth1         ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)

 

The above means that redis and sentinel will only be accessible from the VMs on Your private network.

3. Understand how Master/Slave VMs will communicate each other.

Our setup will have three VMs. Below we assume that our private network has the IP format of 192.168.1.XYZ

192.168.1.11 ==> Master Node (Initially)

192.168.1.12 ==> Slave Node (Initially)

192.168.1.13 ==> Slave Node (Initially)

The only difference between our /etc/redis/redis.conf files in our three VMs is that all our slave VMs must have the following 192.168.1.11 as their Master IP address.

Make sure that we are pointing to our Initial Master IP in the /etc/redis/redis.conf of our slave VMs

Add/change config files for Master VM and Slave VMs

There are two config files we need to have per virtual machine

  1. /etc/redis/redis.conf
  2. /etc/redis/sentinel.conf

Change a few lines in /etc/redis/redis.conf in all servers.

  • From bind 127.0.0.1 ::1 to # bind 127.0.0.1 ::1, comment out the line (69)
  • From # protected-mode no to protected-mode no, uncomment the line (88) or protected-mode yes to protected-mode no

Only on Slave VMs

Add the line below to replicate data from our VM that has IP 192.168.1.11 in /etc/redis/redis.conf

slaveof 192.168.1.11 6379

And set protected-mode to no in /etc/redis/redis.conf

protected-mode no

NOTE: Replace the IP in the example above with a proper IP from Your private network.

slaveof <YOUR_MASTER_IP_HERE> <YOUR_MASTER_PORT_HERE>

Open file /etc/redis/sentinel.conf and modify below lines in all servers

Master (VM: 192.168.1.11)

sentinel myid 9862e14b6d9fb11c035c4a28d48573455a7876a2

sentinel monitor redis-primary 192.168.1.11 6379 2

sentinel down-after-milliseconds redis-primary 2000

sentinel failover-timeout redis-primary 5000

sentinel config-epoch redis-primary 2

sentinel leader-epoch redis-primary 2

protected-mode no

NOTE: You will find the myid number in Your /etc/redis/sentinel.conf after You have started Sentinel the first time.

The format above is sentinel monitor <NAME> <IP> <PORT> <QUORUM>. Which basically means monitor this Redis node with <IP> and <PORT>, use <NAME> hereafter in the config and at least<QUORUM> (in this case two) sentinels has to agree that this Redis node is down for Sentinel to trigger the promotion of another machine to master in this cluster.

Slave (VM: 192.168.1.12)

sentinel myid 9862e14b6d9fb11c035c4a28d48573455a7876a2

sentinel monitor redis-primary 192.168.1.11 6379 2

sentinel down-after-milliseconds redis-primary 2000

sentinel failover-timeout redis-primary 5000

sentinel config-epoch redis-primary 2

sentinel leader-epoch redis-primary 2

protected-mode no

Slave (VM: 192.168.1.13)

sentinel myid 9862e14b6d9fb11c035c4a28d48573455a7876a2

sentinel monitor redis-primary 192.168.1.11 6379 2

sentinel down-after-milliseconds redis-primary 2000

sentinel failover-timeout redis-primary 5000

sentinel config-epoch redis-primary 2

sentinel leader-epoch redis-primary 2

protected-mode no

Ready to fire things up!

You can start/stop/restart the Redis service by running

systemctl start|stop|restart|status redis

  1. Keep an eye on the logs to see what is going on under the hood

tail -f /var/log/redis/redis-server.log

  1. Start a new terminal and run the command below on all three VMs

systemctl restart redis

  1. Check that Redis is responding properly

redis-cli ping

  1. Check that the replication is working properly, fire up redis-cli on Your Master VM and set a key in the database named hello and its content to world

[email protected]:# redis-cli SET hello “world”

OK

  1. Fire up new terminals for the Slave VMs and run

redis-cli GET hello

The response should look something like below

[email protected]:# redis-cli GET hello

“world”

  1. Fire up Sentinel

redis-server /etc/redis/sentinel.conf –sentinel

It should give You a detailed log of what is going on what connections are setup between Master and Slave VMs.

Now go to your terminal on Your Master VM and type the command below and see the magic happen.

redis-cli -p 6379 DEBUG sleep 30

If everything is alright, one of the Slave VMs will be promoted to the “New Master”. You can query the role of the redis server with the command below

redis-cli info replication | grep role

NOTE: You should run Sentinel as a daemon in production.

Add the lines below to /etc/redis/sentinel.conf if You want to daemonize the Sentinel service on Your production environment.

logfile “/var/log/redis/sentinel.log”

daemonize yes

You can now access the Sentinel logs on a specific VM by running tail -f /var/log/redis/sentinel.log

Run Sentinel as a daemon via system if not current configured

/etc/redis/sentinel.conf

sentinel myid 9862e14b6d9fb11c035c4a28d48573455a7876a2

sentinel monitor redis-primary 192.168.1.11 6379 2

sentinel down-after-milliseconds redis-primary 5000

protected-mode no

# Run in production with systemd

logfile “/var/log/redis/sentinel.log”

pidfile “/var/run/redis/sentinel.pid”

daemonize yes

/etc/systemd/system/sentinel.service

[Unit]

Description=Sentinel for Redis

After=network.target

 

[Service]

Type=forking

User=redis

Group=redis

PIDFile=/var/run/redis/sentinel.pid

ExecStart=/usr/bin/redis-server /etc/redis/sentinel.conf –sentinel

ExecStop=/bin/kill -s TERM $MAINPID

Restart=always

 

[Install]

WantedBy=multi-user.target

Change the access permissions of related files

sudo chown redis:redis /etc/redis/sentinel.conf

sudo chown redis:redis /var/log/redis/sentinel.log

sudo chmod 640 /etc/redis/sentinel.conf

sudo chmod 660 /var/log/redis/sentinel.log

Reload and allow Sentinel daemon to autostart

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

sudo systemctl enable sentinel.service

How to start, restart, stop and check status

sudo  systemctl start|restart|stop|status sentinel

Setup HAProxy for our cluster

sudo apt update

sudo apt install haproxy

You can check which version You have by running the command below

[email protected]:# haproxy -v

HA-Proxy version 1.8.8-1ubuntu0.4 2019/01/24

Copyright 2000-2018 Willy Tarreau <[email protected]>

  1. Go to /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg and replace its content with the snippet below

global

         daemon

         maxconn 256

defaults

         mode tcp

         timeout connect 5000ms

         timeout client 50000ms

         timeout server 50000ms

frontend http

         bind :8080

         default_backend stats

backend stats

         mode http

         stats enable

         stats uri /

         stats refresh 1s

         stats show-legends

         stats admin if TRUE

 

frontend redis-read

    bind *:6379

    default_backend redis-online

 

frontend redis-write

         bind *:6380

         default_backend redis-primary

 

backend redis-primary

         mode tcp

         balance first

         option tcp-check

 

         tcp-check send info\ replication\r\n

         tcp-check expect string role:master

 

         server redis-01:192.168.1.11:6379 192.168.1.11:6379 maxconn 1024 check inter 1s

         server redis-02:192.168.1.12:6379 192.168.1.12:6379 maxconn 1024 check inter 1s

         server redis-03:192.168.1.13:6379 192.168.1.13:6379 maxconn 1024 check inter 1s

 

backend redis-online

         mode tcp

         balance roundrobin

         option tcp-check

 

         tcp-check send PING\r\n

         tcp-check expect string +PONG

 

         server redis-01:192.168.1.11:6379 192.168.1.11:6379 maxconn 1024 check inter 1s

         server redis-02:192.168.1.12:6379 192.168.1.12:6379 maxconn 1024 check inter 1s

         server redis-03:192.168.1.13:6379 192.168.1.13:6379 maxconn 1024 check inter 1s

  1. Restart the HAProxy service

sudo systemctl restart haproxy

  1. You can browse the Stats UI that comes out of the box with HAProxy by visiting http://<YOUR_HAPROXY_IP>:8080 on Your browser

TIP: You can access the interface without exposing port 8080 on the VM by tunneling via SSH with ssh -N -L 8080:localhost:8080 <YOUR_USER>@<YOUR_IP_OR_DOMAIN> and then visit localhost:8080 from a browser on the machine You are sitting on.

  1. Check that Your HAProxy server is routing traffic to Your primary Redis node by executing the command below on Your HAProxy VM.

apt install redis-tools -y

redis-cli -h 192.168.1.10 -p 6379 info replication | grep role

role:master

redis-cli -h 192.168.1.10 -p 6379 info replication | grep role

role:slave

redis-cli -h 192.168.1.10 -p 6379 info replication | grep role

role:slave

redis-cli -h 192.168.1.10 -p 6379 info replication | grep role

role:master

redis-cli -h 192.168.1.10 -p 6379 info replication | grep role

role:slave

redis-cli -h 192.168.1.10 -p 6379 info replication | grep role

role:slave

As You can see above the roundrobin balance algorithm sends each request to all the machines listed under the backend redis-online section in our haproxy.cfg

Now check the 6380 port which is designated for write requests.

It should return something similar to the response below. The important part is role:master as Your HAProxy should always route traffic to the master VM at any given time.

redis-cli -h <YOUR_HAPROXY_PRIVATE_IP> -p 6380 info replication

# Replication

role:master

connected_slaves:2

slave0:ip=192.168.1.12,port=6379,state=online,offset=300869,lag=0

slave1:ip=192.168.1.13,port=6379,state=online,offset=300869,lag=1

master_replid:5727c2e7a8807e43cde4171209059c497965626f

master_replid2:4b9ba6abc844fd849ee067ccf4bc1d1aefe3cade

master_repl_offset:301301

second_repl_offset:65678

repl_backlog_active:1

repl_backlog_size:1048576

repl_backlog_first_byte_offset:454

repl_backlog_histlen:30084`

That’s it, You should now have everything You need to setup a well functioning Redis cluster.

 

3 responses to “How to setup a Redis cluster with Sentinel (comes with Redis) and HAProxy on Ubuntu 18.04”

  1. First of all, thanks for the tutorial.
    I get an error with this command
    redis-server /etc/redis/sentinel.conf –sentinel

    *** FATAL CONFIG FILE ERROR (Redis 6.2.5) ***
    Reading the configuration file, at line 97
    >>> ‘sentinel monitor redis-primary 192.168.xxx.xxx 6379 2’
    sentinel directive while not in sentinel mode

    Also, within the sentinel.conf file, do I need to change the line
    sentinel current-epoch 0 to sentinel current-epoch 2

    FYI, my config is running with ubuntu 20.04 and redis 6.2.5

    Regards

  2. Hi
    Sorry for the delay, I found the solution (I had to remove the line sentinel myid xxxx from each redis-sentinel.conf files) and after starting the sentinel service the id was regenerated.

    I think I have another issue, from the HAProxy monitor I have 2 primary-redis up
    https://www.dropbox.com/s/bgdah6g8r6bdcnk/Capture.PNG?dl=0

    and after getting the replication info, I notice I don’t have connected_slave
    role:master
    connected_slaves:0
    master_failover_state:no-failover

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