To Understand the architecture of Linux based operating systems.

 

Let start the learning and understand of file system.

sd

/
system root directory. first major section of file system

/boot
boot file, kernel etc

/dev
contains special/device files like /dev/zero, /dev/null, /dev/tty

/etc
configuration files

/home
user home directory. For example “nitin” user will have /home/nitin, “anshika” user will have /home/anshika
directory

/root
root user’s home directory.

/media
mount point for removable media such as dvd, cdrom, usb drive

/mnt
temporarily mounted filesystems.

/selinux
contains security enhanced linux filesystem

/opt
installing additional software. suppose you wan to install “oracle”, it should be installed here.

/proc
Virtual file system. It holds memory, process, kernel information

/bin
essential binaries available to all users i.e root as well as normal users like “ls”, “mv”, “cp”, “date” etc

/sbin
essential system binaries available to root only such as “fdisk”, “mount” etc

/usr/bin
non essential binaries available to all users such as “passwd”

/usr/sbin
non essential system binaries available to root only such as “useradd”, “userdel”, “usermod”.

/usr/local/bin
non essential binaries available to all users by locally installed packages

/usr/local/sbin
non essential system binaries available to root user by locally installed packages

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/lib
essential libraries for the binaries in /bin/ and /sbin

/usr/lib
libraries for the binaries in /usr/bin/ and /usr/sbin/.

/srv
site-specific data which is served by the system.

/tmp
Temporary files often lost during reboot

/var/tmp
temporary files to be preserved between reboots.

/var/yp
holds NIS database

/usr
read only user data. second major section of filesystem

/usr/local
local hierarchy. third major section of file system

/usr/include
standard include files.

/usr/share
architecture-independent data.

/usr/share/doc
documentation

/usr/share/man
manual pages ie when we run command “man ls” it picks information from this directory.

/usr/share/dict
words used in system

/usr/src
source code

/etc/X11
configuration for X windows system

/var
for files where data is continuously changing such as logs, spool files, and temporary e-mail files. the data for
apache web server is kept in “/var/www/html” & for vsftpd ftp server in “/var/ftp/pub”

/var/lock
lock files. Files keeping track of resources currently in use.

/var/log
various log files

/var/mail
contains user mailboxes

/var/run
Information about the running system since last boot, e.g., currently logged-in users and running daemons.

/var/spool
spool for tasks waiting to be processed, e.g., print queues and unread mail.

9

 

We’ve seen architecture of linux file system and also whats the use of directories and file system.

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